WEEK #17(May 7 -May 11) Monday: We discussed the CIVIL RIGHTS movement HERE Tuesday: We discussed Civil Rights and completed a packet Wednesday. This day was spent working on our final project web pages Thursday: Our time was spent working on our final project web pages Friday: Our time was spent completing two packets about the civil rights
the education of black children in separate public schools from their white counterparts was unconstitutional
Court ordered segregation to be phased out over time, "with all deliberate speed"
Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955–1956
refused to give up her seat on a public bus to make room for a white passenger
arrested, tried, and convicted for disorderly conduct and violating a local ordinance
African-American leaders organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott to demand more humane bus system
boycott lasted for 381 days until local segregation on public buses was lifted
Martin Luther King, Jr. was president of the Montgomery Improvement Association, the organization that directed the boycott
The protest made King a national figure
Desegregating Little Rock, 1957
Governor of Arkansas called out National Guard to prevent nine African-American students from going to white school
they had already sued for the right to attend the integrated school
one girl was harassed by white protesters outside the school
President Eisenhower deployed elements of the army to protect the students
Greensboro sit-ins, 1960
four black college students sat down at a segregated lunch counter to protest its policy of excluding African Americans
protesters were encouraged to dress professionally, to sit quietly, and to occupy every other stool so that potential white sympathizers could join in
the sit-in soon inspired other sit-ins in Virginia, Tennessee, and Georgia
activists who had led these sit-ins created the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Freedom Rides, 1961
Freedom Rides were journeys by Civil Rights activists on interstate buses into the segregated south to test the Supreme Court decision Boynton v. Virginia (1960) that ended segregation for inter-state travelers
In Alabama, one bus was firebombed, forcing its passengers to flee for their lives
Public sympathy and support for the freedom riders led the Kennedy administration to order the Interstate Commerce Commission to issue a new desegregation order
new ICC rule took effect on November 1, 1961
passengers were permitted to sit wherever they chose on the bus
"white" and "colored" signs came down in the terminals
separate drinking fountains, toilets, and waiting rooms were consolidated
lunch counters began serving people regardless of skin color
Voter Registration Organizing
Integration of Mississippi Universities, 1956-1965
Albany Movement, 1961-1962
Birmingham campaign, 1963-1964
March on Washington, 1963
St. Augustine, Florida, 1963-1964
Mississippi Freedom Summer, 1964
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, 1964
Dr. King Awarded Nobel Peace Prize
Boycott of New Orleans by American Football League players, January 1965
Selma and the Voting Rights Act, 1965
Memphis, King assassination and the Poor People's March, 1968
1. The rise and expansion of the civil rights movement: causes, legal issues, tactics, Martin Luther King Jr, the March on Washingtonsetting the stage"Jim Crow" system remained virtually intact into the early 1950s WWII set the stage for the roots of the civil rights movement- During the war Job opportunities were expanded to blacks and women due to the necessity during the war. Court casesPlessy vs. Ferguson- (1896) Stated that There was nothing unconstitutional about segregation 2. The changing movement: the Black Panthers, Black Muslims, Black Power and Malcolm XThe Black Power movement grew out of the Civil Rights movement that had steadily gained momentum through the 1950s and 1960s. Although not a formal movement, the Black Power movement marked a turning point in black-white relations in the United States and also in how blacks saw themselves. Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam felt that racial self-determination was a critical and neglected element of true equality. In 1966, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale formed the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense (BPP), initially as a group to track incidents of police violence. Within a short time groups such as SNCC and BPP gained momentum, and by the late 1960s the Black Power movement had made a definite mark on American culture and society. The movement was hailed by some as a positive force aimed at helping blacks achieve full equality with whites, but it was reviled by others as a militant, sometimes violent faction whose primary goal was to drive a wedge between whites and blacks. In truth, the Black Power movement was a complex event that took place at a time when society and culture was being transformed throughout the United States, and its legacy reflects that complexity. The Black Power movement instilled a sense of racial pride and self-esteem in blacks. 3. Hispanic–American activism
Latin Americans are a diverse group
A million Puerto Ricans
Few hundred thousand Cubans
Usually, Latin Americans suffered lower standards of living and poverty
1960's: Latinos began to ask for more rights and respect for their culture
Cesar Chavez: created the United Farm Workers, which united Mexican Farm workers into a union that asked for better wages and working conditions.
Chavez led several marches in order to get attention but the March 1966 boycott of grapes gain the most national attention
Latinos also asked for recognition of their culture and thus the Bilingual Education Act of 1968 was passed. It funded bilingual and cultural programs for students who didn't speak English.
4. Native-Americans civil rights movement and feminism
Native Americans are also a diverse group, with hundreds of different tribes
They suffered high unemployment rates, poor health care, and high death rates.
The Eisenhower administration attempted to solve the problem by relocating Natie Americans into cities
Most Native Americans remained poor
Most did not want to move to city or lose their culture
In 1961, about 700 representatives from 64 tribes wrote the Declaration of Indian Purpose. They asked for more freedom and protection of their culture.
Johnson changed government policy by allowing for more sovereignty
Many young people wanted quicker changes and formed the AIM which took up more aggressive means to have their message heard.
Feminism faded out after women gained the right to vote in 1920's
The movement reappeared in the 60's
In 1960, 40% of the women worked outside of homes
Less pay than men
Some jobs unavailable to women
Betty Freidan's book about inequality in the workplace popularized the issue.
1964 Civil Rights Act banned discriminating based on gender as well
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) ignored women's issues till the National Organization for Women (NOW) pushed for the issue
1973 decision in Roe vs. Wade was another success for women's rights
Equal Rights Amendment explicitly stated that any discrimination based on gender is illegal. ERA was passed in congress but was not ratified by enough states. (ERA is introduced in congress every few years but is still not part of constitution. If you care about the issue, google it.)
5. Supreme court decisions, key congressional legislation, the response of the executive branch (Ann)
Supreme Court Decisions
Plessy vs. Ferguson was in 1896 and it ruled that the “Separate but equal” law did not violate the 14th amendment, which guarantees all Americans equal.
Brown vs. Board of Education was in 1954 and it ruled that in the field of public education the doctrine of “Separate but equal” has no place. So, as a result public schools were integrated.
(Brown vs. Board of Education overturned the Plessy vs. Ferguson ruling)
Key congressional legislation
Civil Rights Act of 1964 stopped segregation and discrimination in public accommodations. It forbids employers to discriminate against minorities.
Civil Rights Act of 1968 declared the prohibition of discrimination in sale, rental, and financing of housing because of race, color, religious practice, gender, disability, family status, or national origin.
24th Amendment was passed in 1964 and it stated no poll taxes would be allowed in any state. (states could not charge people to vote)
Voting Rights Act was passed in 1965 and it made it so no one could be denied the right to vote based on race. It outlawed literacy tests.
Response of Legislative Branch
Civil Rights Act of 1964 marked the legislative attempt to make life better for minority groups.
Previous “Civil Rights Questions” (Amy and Esther)Civil Rights Events1. Compare the significance of the events at Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957 with those at Birmingham, Alabama in 1963 in the campaign for civil rights by African-Americans. Martin Luther King2. Assess the impact of Martin Luther King on the Civil Rights movement. (Amy) Introduction: On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, an NAACP officer, refused to give up her seat in the front of a bus to a white man and was then arrested because of it. The news of this event spread rapidly and the NAACP leader E.D. Dicon suggested a bus boycott. Leaders of the African-American community formed the Montgomery IMprovment Association to organize the boycott. They elected Pastor Martin Luther King, Jr. from Dexter Avenus Baptist Church. Though hesitant that he would actually have any notable influence or impact, King agreed to take on the challenge. For over the next decade, MLK Jr. raised awareness of the civil rights and placed its importance on a much higher level, and profoundly impacted the way whites and blacks would interact during the time and in the years to follow. 2nd paragraph: -Very effective, moving an powerful orator -successfully carried out organization os bus boycott - proved tbat the AA community ciykd unite and organize a sucessful protest movement -firmly believed in the power of nonviolent resistance -"we will not hate you (white rascists), but we cannot … obey your unjust laws" -in 1957, King joined with ministers and civil rights leaders to found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) -purpose was to carry on nonviolent crusaders against the evils of second-class citizenship -wanted to stage protests and demonstrations throughout south from grassroots organizations 3rd paragraph: -his very existence and beliefs inspired many others -The SNCC (student nonviolent coordinating committee) based their beliefs and goals off of MLK's -SNCC organized many successful sit-ins -inspired freedom riders who rode from bus stop to bus stop all around the south to make a statement -got brutally beaten at several stops -Birmingham, Alabama - one of the most segregated cities in the country - Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights and secretary of the SCLC invited MLK to help integrate the city -King organized days of demonstrations - was arrested -footage of the violent police men (beat andabused activists) was shown to the rest of the country - convinced Kennedy that a new civil rights act was needed -june 11, 1963, Pres. Kenn. sent troops to force Gov George Wallace to integrate Univeristy of Alabama -demanded that Congress pass a Civil Rights bill 4th paragraph: -On April 28, 1963 MLK gave his famous "i have a dream" speech at Washington DC -more than 250,000 people attended - about 75,000 whites -JUly 2, 1964, President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender. - gave all citizens the right to enter libraries, parks, washrooms, restaurants, theatres, and other public accommodations. - objected to the black power movemnet - promotoed equality and peace -was killed on april 4, 1068 conclusion -from all the information, you can form your own conclusion. The Civil Right Movement3. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the civil rights movement in the United States make significant progress in the period 1950 to 1964? [Esther] I. Introduction
Activism and a series of Supreme Court decisions advanced equal rights for African Americans in the 1950s and 60s.
The Civil Rights movement succeeded in securing for African American the rights promised by the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. The civil rights movement has also been the basis for other groups gaining equal rights, including other minorities, women, and people with disabilities.
In the mid 1960s, clashes between white authority and black civilians spread. In New York City, 1964, an encounter between white police and African American teens led to the death of a 15 year old student. This sparked a race riot in central Harlem. The African Americans wanted and needed economic equality of opportunity in jobs, housing, and education.
De Jure and De Facto segregation
The Civil Rights movement ended de jure segregation by bringing about legal protection for the civil rights of all Americans.
the Civil Rights Act of 1968 was passed, which ended discrimination in housing.
When school segregation ended, the numbers of who went to college increased significantly. This led to better jobs and business opportunities.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
African Americans in Montgomery, Alabama, organized a bus boycott in 1955 to fight segregation of city buses. The boycotters kept many buses nearly empty for 381 days. The boycott ended when the Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation.
III. Voting Rights
Activism pushed the federal government to end segregation and ensure voting rights for African Americans.
In the Freedom Rides, African Americans tested the Supreme Court ruling that banned segregation in interstate bus transportation by riding on buses into the South. Many were met by angry mobs that attacked and beat them.
The Kennedy administration sent U.S. marshals to protect the last group of Freedom Riders and the Interstate Commerce Commission, which regulated bus companies, issued orders banning segregation.
Freedom Summer was a highly publicized campaign in the Deep South to register blacks to vote during the summer of 1964.
Freedom Summer marked the climax of intensive voter-registration activities in the South.
Freedom Summer activists faced threats and harassment throughout the campaign, not only from white supremacist groups, but from local residents and police.
Three young civil rights workers, a black volunteer, James Chaney, and his white coworkers, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner, were murdered.
The murders made headlines all over the country, and provoked an outpouring of national support for the Civil Rights Movement.
Freedom Summer left a positive legacy because the well-publicized voter registration drives brought national attention to the subject of black disenfranchisement.
This eventually led to the 1965 Voting Rights Act, which outlawed tactics used to prevent blacks from voting.
IV. Black Power/Pride
The Civil Rights movement fostered greater pride in the African Americans of their racial identity.
Many African Americans adopted African-influenced styles and proudly displayed symbols of African history and culture.
College students also demanded new Black studies programs.
From the fight for equality came not only desegregation but also a resurgence of racial pride for African Americans.
Disagreements amony civil rights groups and the rie of black nationalism created a violence period in the fight for civil rights.
Black Power4. What impact did ‘Black Power’ have on the civil rights movement? [Esther]
The Black Power movement grew out of the Civil Rights movement that had steadily gained momentum through the 1950s and 1960s.
Although not a formal movement, the Black Power movement marked a turning point in black-white relations in the United States and also in how blacks saw themselves.
Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam felt that racial self-determination was a critical and neglected element of true equality.
The term "black power" had been around since the 1950s, but it was Stokely Carmichael, head of the Student Nonviolence Coordinating Committee (SNCC) who popularized the term in 1966.
Carmichael led a push to transform SNCC from a multiracial community activist organization into an all-black social change organization.
In 1966, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale formed the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense (BPP), initially as a group to track incidents of police violence.
Within a short time groups such as SNCC and BPP gained momentum, and by the late 1960s the Black Power movement had made a definite mark on American culture and society.
The movement was hailed by some as a positive force aimed at helping blacks achieve full equality with whites, but it was reviled by others as a militant, sometimes violent faction whose primary goal was to drive a wedge between whites and blacks.
In truth, the Black Power movement was a complex event that took place at a time when society and culture was being transformed throughout the United States, and its legacy reflects that complexity.
The Black Power movement instilled a sense of racial pride and self-esteem in blacks.
Black Power advocates encouraged blacks to form or join all-black political parties that could provide a formidable power base and offer a foundation for real socioeconomic progress.
Blacks were encouraged to acknowledge their African heritage.
Colleges established black studies programs and black studies departments.
The Black Power movement did not succeed in getting blacks to break away from white society and create a separate society. Nor did it help end discrimination or racism.
It did, however, help provide some of the elements that were ultimately necessary for blacks and whites to gain a fuller understanding of each other.